The Renaissance: money, bills of exchange, and banking--the Bardi, Peruzzi, and Medici.
Nicolo Machiavelli and The Prince (don't forget download!). Lorenzo Valla and the Donations of Constantine.
Italian wars of Francis I and Charles V 1515-1559. Charles' background: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, their daughter Joana marries Philip, son of HRE Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy (Franche Comté and Spanish Netherlands). Their son Charles V. Why did Charles lose the Italian Wars? His fondness for Flanders--Turks under Soleman the Magnificent and the Battle of Mohacs (1526). Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis 1556 ends war between Henry II and Philip II. Metz, Toul, and Verdun.
The causes of the Protestant Reformation; simony, corrupt monks, Erasmus and the New Testament, indulgences: Leo X makes deal with Albert, bishop of Mainz, and the Fugger Bank. Tetzel, the 95 Theses.
The Peace of Augsburg 1555.
The Peasant Rebellion of 1524-1525 and the 12 Articles.
John Calvin and The Institutes of the Christian Religion;predestination; Geneva, the Consistory, Michael Servetus.
Anabaptists and the Pennsylvania Dutch.
The Inquisition and Ignatius Loyola. the Counter Reformation of the 16th century
The Council of Trent 1551-1562.
The Dutch Revolt: William the Silent vs. Philip II (how different from his father Charles V). The Union of Utrecht (1581) and the Republic of the United Provinces.
The French Wars of Religion: Cast of Characters: Henry II, Catherine de Medici and their children Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. The Bourbons: Anthony of Navarre and his son Henry of Navarre. The Guise: Mary, Queen of Scots married to Francis II, Francis of Guise and his son Henry of Guise (see War of the 3 Henrys). Gaspard de Coligny, the Admiral of France. 1560 The Conspiracy of Amboise. The Colloquoy of Passy. Assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise (blamed on Coligny). The Politiques and marriage of Henry of Navarre to Princess Margaret: Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
The War of the 3 Henrys: Henry of Navarre, Henry III, and Henry of Guise. "Paris is worth a mass." The Edict of Nantes.
Edward VI, son of Henry VIII. "Bloody" Mary and the English counter reformation. Elizabeth and the 39 articles.
The Death of Mary, Queen of Scots: Elizabeth, Darnley, Bothwell, and Arthur Babington.
The Spanish Armada: finances, Leicester in the Netherlands, Sir Francis Drake, tactics on both sides--Drake at Cadiz, the Armada and Parma, Elizabeth at Tillbury.
Causes of the 30 Years' War. Bishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trèves; Elector Palatine, Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, King of Bohemia. Peace of Augsburg and Ecclesiastical Reservation (1552 cut-off). The elderly regent Matthias and Protestant choice of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, as King of Bohemia. The Defenestration of Prague (May 23, 1618).
Emperor Ferdinand II and Wallenstein. Protestant champions Christian IV of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Economics and politics--Cardinal Richelieu supports Gustavus. The fate of Magdeburg. Peace of Westphalia ends war in 1648 and consequences to Protestants; Richelieu and Rochelle.
The Stuarts in England. James I: 1605 the Gunpowder Plot and Guy Fawkes. The rise and fall of the Duke of Buckingham.
Charles I and Parliament: Henrietta Maria; Charles calls no Parliament for 11 years; ship money and other illegalities. The rising of Scotland in 1633: Anglican prayer book and Strafford. The Short Parliament (1640). Treaty of Ripon and The Long Parliament. 1641 Irish uprising and John Pym. Outbreak of war.
Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army. The Second Civil War 1648 and Charles' execution. Pride's Purge and the Rump Parliament. Escape of Charles II.
Richard Cromwell and General Monk. The Restoration of Charles II.
James the Duke of York and the Test Act. Mary of Modena; Princess Anne marries William of Orange. 1678 the Popish Plot and Titus Oates. The Duke of Monmouth. Earl of Shaftsbury and whigs against King James II, Tories on his side.
King James II. Catholic appointments, the Declaration of Indulgence and the "warming pan baby" "James III," "the Old Pretender."
The Glorious Revolution, William and Mary, The Battle of the Boyne (see below War of the League of Augsburg), and the Bill of Rights.
Louis XIV of France and Cardinal Mazarin. The Fronde and the Parlement de Paris. Louis and his nobles at Versailles. Colbert, finances, and mercantilism (look over downloads!).
Cornelius Jensen and Port Royal. Louis' reaction to religious non-conformists: cancellation of the Edict of Nantes. Gallicanism and Pope Innocent IX.
Louis XIV vs. William of Netherlands (later William III of England). The War of the League of Augsburg and the War of the Spanish Succession: Philip of Anjou, the Duke of Marlborough, and the Treaty of Utrecht: Gibraltar, The Austrian Netherlands, Newfoundland, and good-bye to the Old Pretender.
The Scientific Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus and the Ptolemaic System: Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler and elliptical orbits. Galileo's laws of motion and The Starry Messenger. Isaac Newton and the "discovery" of gravity.