The Commonwealth, The Restoration, and the Glorious Revolution

Charles, Prince of Wales, hears of father's death in the Hague, where his sister Mary is married to William of Orange. 3 other siblings, including James, who is 13. No help from abroad: William dies of smallpox, and young Louis XIV involved in the Fronde.

Charles invades England, but defeated by Cromwell and for 6 weeks escapes across England to France. Locked out of England for 7 years.

House of Lords abolished; Rump Parliament replaced with nominated Barebone's Parliament of 140 loyalists. This too overturned when it pushes for reforms. Even some talk of making little Prince Henry king. Yet anothr Parliament in The Humble Petition begs Cromwell to be king. The "Other House."

Cromwell dies in 1658 and his son Richard "succeeds." Richard's first Parliament quarrels with army and what is left of the old Rump Parliament returns. When they begin to dismantle the Protectorate General Lambert stages a coup. George Monk marches sough from Scotland and in 1660, after sending a conciliatory letter from Breda, Charles II is recalled.

The Commonwealth never popular--Restoration not the work of Monk alone. Charles returns without any real conditions, but old problems remain. "Ship Money" etc. outlawed and Parliament grants an annual revenue of £1,200,000, usually with a deficit of £200-300,000 a year. Triennial Act of 1641 repealed, but a Parliament every 3 year still expected.

Solemn League and Covenant still in force, but 2nd Parliament in 1662 passes Act of Uniformity, and 1,000 clerics lose their jobs. Clarendon Code enforced the supremacy of the Church of England. Scotland supported Charles, but bishops still imposed.

1665 plague. 1666 fire of London. 2nd Dutch war breaks out May 1665. Good work from Duke of York, but Dutch raid up thames burn 2 ships of the line. Peace Treaty of Breda July 1667--Charles' minister and friend Clarendon the scape-goat.

Charles joins Louis XIV in an alliance against the Netherlands. Secret Catholic clause of the treaty a huge mistake, and a public lie to Parliament! War goes badly, Charles withdraws, and Charles' nephew William of Orange emerges as leader and hero of the Netherlands.

Country goes bankrupt, and in exchange for money from Parliament Charles withdraws his Declaration of Indulgence of 1643 and accepts Parliament's Test Act, wy which James loses his commission in the navy! Anne Hyde dies and James marries Mary of Modena, a Catholic. To counter this, Charles has James' Protestant daughter (by Anne Hyde) marry her cousin, William of Orange.

August 1678 The Popish Plot. Titus Oates and the murder of Sir Edward Berry Godfrey. Edward Coleman drawn and quartered. The Duke of Monmouth--Absalom and Achitophel. Subsidy from Louis XIV and the dissolution of Parliament. Early of Shaftsberry (Whigs) against king, Torries support him.

Feb. 1685 Charles has stroke and priest smuggled in to give him last rites. James appointed king (surprisingly) without problems.

Monmouth lands with 80 men to seize throne--his fate.

In 3 years James throws all his support away. Makes many unpopular Catholic appointments (Edict of Nantes also repealed in France 1686); 1688 James publishes Declaration of Indulgence in all churches of England; his wife Mary has a son.

Parliament invites William and Mary. James abandons his army at Salisbury and returns to London. His daughter Anne. Twice allowed to escape--ends up at St. Germain in Paris.

Convention makes William and Mary joint rulers (like Mary and Philip II)--William mostly interested in defeating Louis XIV.

James in Ireland; William and the Battle of the Boyne.

The Bill of Rights

Queen Anne; George I of Hanover, a descendant of "The Winter King" and James I's daughter Elizabeth.