Elizabeth dies 1603. James' early unhappy life. the "union" of Scotland and England (not official til mid 18th century). English attitude to James of Scotland.
Not stingy like Elizabeth--was spending £36,000 a year, so that by 1608 Elizabeth's debt of £100,000 had swelled to £600,000! Offered £200,000 income in exchange for some concessions, but refused, for as a supporter said, "To exchange royal prerogative for parliamentary revenue was the high road o democracy."
Nov. 5, 1605 The Gunpowder Plot and Guy Fawkes.
1612. Death of Prince Henry, so Charles becomes Prince of Wales.
1614. Debts rise and the "Addled Parliament." Rise of George Villiers to Duke of Buckhingham in 1623. "Christ had his John, and I have have my George." Sir Walter Raleigh: framed for the Arabella Stuart plot and spends 12 years in the Tower. Disastrous expedition to the Orinoco River; execution.
James wanted to cement peace with Spain by marrying his son Charles to the Spanish Infanta. Complicated by the 30 Years' War, for James married his 15-year-old daughter Elizabeth to Frederick, "The Winter King." Parliament wanted a Protestant Crusade in the Netherlands. The Protestation of the Commons--Charles rips it up and loses his chance for revenue. Escapade of the "sweet boys" Charles and Buckingham to Spain against wishes of "poor old dad." Charles turns anti-Spanish; James dies 1625.
Charles indiscreetly arranges a Catholic marriage with Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France. Secret clause in the wedding contract.
War with both France and Spain. Edward Cecil fails at Cadiz and Buckingham at Rochelle. Two Parliaments dissolved in 1627 when they complain of royal incompetents. No money. Buckingham assassinated at Portsmouth while planning another attack on Rochelle.
1629. Charles dissolves his 3rd Parliament and arrests Holler, Valentine, and Sir John Eliot. Religious problems with Parliament too--Henrietta Maria known to be an ardent Catholic and Parliament fears another Gunpowder Plot.
Peace with France 1629 and Spain in 1630--but not with Parliament, which Charles refuses to summon for 11 years. Raises money illegally: forced loans, exploitation of forest laws and wardships, and "ship money." Nobles and commoners have their ears clipped!
Scotland does Charles in. His unpopular "coronation" there in 1633 and his Revocation Edict, removing Scottish land grants back to 1540! James' Anglican prayer book; he sends in the Irish strongman Strafford. Summons Short Parliament April 15, 1640 to raise money and dismisses it 3 weeks later. Strafford defeated and Treaty of Ripon (Oct. 1640) costs Charles £850 a day!
Long Parliament summoned and starts to dismantle royal prerogative. The Triennial Act!
Oct. 1641 Irish rise up and massacre Protestants. Charles asks Parliament for help. John Pym's Militia Bill. Charles tries to arrest 5 Parliamentary leaders. Charles withdraws to York, raises royal standard August 22, 1642: start of the Civil War. Charles fails to take London and retreats to Oxford.
Presbyterian Scots join Parliament and sign the Solemn League and Covenant, leaving Charles with only Montrose and his highlanders. Europe still stuck in 30 Years' War and Charles cut off from continent.
Charles' forces defeated at Marston Moor. Oliver Cromwell, distinguished there, helps organize The New Model Army. Cromwell and Fairfax crush royal army at Naseby and publish king's correspondence. Charles flees Oxford disguised as a servant and surrenders to Scots, who eventually turn him over to English for back pay.
Charles escapes to Isle of Wight and signs the Covenant with the Scots. Start of Second Civil War, 1648. Defeated again, and this time Cromwell determined to execute the king.
Pride's Purge of 150 Parliament members, leaving only "rump" of 80 loyal t Cromwell.
The king's trial. The Eikon Basilike. Burial at Westminster by his great-great-uncle Henry VIII.