The Tudors and Spain

Henry VIII and his "lavish" ways: Hampton Court, six wives, "The Field of the Cloth of Gold" at Calais in 1520. cf. wars of Charles V and Philip II. Confiscations, enclosure, and Henry's new noble class.

Cardinal Wolsey, Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (Anne Bolyn), and Thomas Cromwell.

Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour. Marriage problem and the Church of England. Beckett.

Henry's Parliaments: House of Lords (packed with Anglican bishops) and Commons--knights of the shire and burgesses. Contrast French Estates General. The open ended English lower aristocracy--gentry and gentlemen. The Tudor personality and the success of Parliament.

Edward VI and the repeal of Henry's 6 Articles (transsubstantiation, apostolic succession, and "Defender of the Faith"). Thomas Cranmer and the Book of Common Prayer

Death of Edward. Elevation of Mary, revolt, and execution of Lady Jane Gray.

Mary and Philip II, married July 1554 (one year before abdication of Charles V). Philip and the Crown of England. The fires of Smithfield (300 victims) and Mary's death Nov. 17, 1558.

Elizabeth had been declared illegitimate by Parliament in 1536, but Henry's will rehabilitated her.

The Prayer Book and the 39 articles--no on Latin, confession, pope; yes on communion in both kinds, clerical marriage, and a middle ground on transsubstantiation.

The threat of Mary, Queen of Scots--Catholic, Guise, and the Queen of France who also took the title Queen of England. Puritans and Presbytarians on the left.

The virgin queen and the politics of spinsterhood

Mary and Darnley, Bothwell, and Artuhr Babington. The casket letters; Mary's execution in 1587.

The Spanish Armada

Elizabeth's revenue vs. her taxes; Antwerp loans vs. debt and rentes; tips and corruption; Leicester in the Netherlands; Drake in the West Indies; Leicester's insolence, 6000 foot and 1000 horse to pay! Recruiting and press gangs

The Spanish Armada: old tactics and galleys. English ships and broadside guns. Hawkins Treasurer of the Navy in 1577.

April 1587. Drake attacks Cadiz--Cape St. Vincent--the Azores.

Elizabeth tries peace--first Armada scattered by storm and reassembles at Corunna. Catholics interred in England

July 19. Armada appears off the Lizard; Parma and the Isle of Wight; Calais and the storm--half lost on the way home.

Elizabeth at Tillbury

Elizabeth vs. Parliament and the Puritans

1597. The Irish Revolt; The Earl of Essex