The Counter Reformation

1555, year of the Peace of Augsburg: Thomas Cranmer tried, Cardinal Caraffa becomes Pope Paul IV. Counter Reformation dates from 1540, when Paul III gives charter to Jesuits, to 1566, The Council of Trent

The Jesuits--founded by Inigo de Realde, called Loyola. Born 1491. Founded Jesuits 1540.

The order's military discipline. Free colleges founded. In 16 years swelled from 6 original members to 1,500; 36 colleges and 68 houses educated 6,000 students

The Inquisition: Goes back to Innnocent III, renewed by Ferdinand and Isabella, who gave charter to Dominicans in 1481--within 3 years 2,300 heretics burnt. Victims mostly Jews, Moors, and "renegade" Jewish Christians.

Cardinal Caraffi introduces Inquisition to Rome; protestants exterminated in Italy; never successful north of Alps; highly successful in Spain. Later troubles with Napoleon. Source of the use of torture.

The Council of Trent. General councils resisted. Finally Paul IV summoned it in 1544; 2nd session 1551; 3rd 1562. Four demands:

1. Abolition of pluralism, absenteeism, and the sale of benefices.

2. Luther and reforming Catholics want clerical marriage, translaiton of the bible, and communion of both kinds.

3. Definition of nature of mass, original sin, justification by faith.

4. Privileges of the papacy: did biships rule by divine right or as agents of the pope?

The Pope won: most decisions made in 3rd session after the Peace of Augsburg. But Christianity lost its universality.

The Index: nil obstat and imprimatur.

The Netherlands Revolt

Reformation gave birth to a century of wars. Why?

Fanaticism of Philip II. The Moors and Granada. The Netherlands

Charles V, Mary of Hungary, and "The Great Privilege." No problems! However:

1. Dutch mysticism: Thomas à Kempis and the Dutch tendency to Protestantism

2. Dutch bishops--only 2 and Philip tried to reorganize them

3. Philip's love of the Inquisitions

William the Silent. Service under Charles V. Objects to Cardinal Granwell and the Inquisition and finally withdraws to Nassau when he couldn't take Philip's loyalty oath.

1567-1573. Tenure of the Duke of Alva. Executions! William saw himself as only against Alva: Pro Rege, Grege, Lege (For King, People, and the Law). 1568 William declared traitor; his Justification and the printing press. Nasty guerilla war culminated when the "Beggars" take Brill in 1571; William finally declares himself Protestant, and Alva recalled 1573.

Protestant North and Catholic South divided, but massacre in Antwerp in 1574 leads to all 15 provinces signing the Pacification of Ghent (1576)

Philip's new general Don John of Austria and his new regent Alexander Farnese detach the southern provinces by the Union of Aras and found the Spanish Netherlands.

1579. William put under the ban. His "Apology" and the Union of Utrecht and (1581) The Republic of the United Provinces. The first revolution!

William the Silent assassinated in 1584, but the Golden Age of Spain over.