3. The Reformation

3 Causes of Reformation: papal finance, the condition of the Holy Orders, and the Publication of the New Testament.

Simony and the sale of benefices

Indulgences. infinitus thesaurus. Julius II and Leo X build St. Peter's

The "Friar Tuck" syndrome

Erasmus and his edition of the New Testament (1516)

Luther's conversion--faith vs. good works--and his journey to Rome.

Leo X's deal with Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, and the Fugger Bank. Tetzel

Publication of the 95 Theses

1518 Luther summoned to Augsburg before Papal legate

1520. Luther writes "To the Christian Nobility"--all men are priests! Luther burns the papal bull and is excommunicated

Luther before Charles V at the Diet of Worms (1521);The Ban of the Empire; Luther is "kidnapped" by Frederick the Wise of Saxony; The Wartburg

Why didn't Charles win?

Could he have converted?

Opposition of the German princes.

Trouble with successive popes: Leo X died in 1521; Adrian VI sided with Francis I; Clement VII and the sack of Rome in 1527

The Turks and Francis I

The Peace of Augsburg 1555.

Luther's political conservatism, unlike Calvin and the Anabaptists.

His reaction to the Peasants' Rebellion of 1524-1525

Revolt in South and SW Germany by "educated" peasants

The 12 Articles: parish elect their own priests; reduce fees to Church and nobles; allow peasants to hunt and gather wood

John Calvin (1509-1564)

1536 Geneva wins independence from its Catholic bishop; Calvin publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion

Predestination; the elect (who tend to act puritanically)

The Consistory in Geneva; the world as an antechamber to hell; no dancing, theater, gambling, or sex

Michael Servetus burned at the stake by Calvin in 1553

Scotland and John Knox; Puritans in England and Massachusetts; Low countries; France and the Eidgenossen ("covenented") or Huguenots

Protestant Rebels: the Anabaptists

1530's John of Leiden seizes Munster.

polygamy, hostile to class distinctions and private property

Meno Simons and the Pennsylvania Dutch