3 Causes of Reformation: papal finance, the condition of the Holy Orders, and the Publication of the New Testament.
Simony and the sale of benefices
Indulgences. infinitus thesaurus. Julius II and Leo X build St. Peter's
The "Friar Tuck" syndrome
Erasmus and his edition of the New Testament (1516)
Luther's conversion--faith vs. good works--and his journey to Rome.
Leo X's deal with Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, and the Fugger Bank. Tetzel
Publication of the 95 Theses
1518 Luther summoned to Augsburg before Papal legate
1520. Luther writes "To the Christian Nobility"--all men are priests! Luther burns the papal bull and is excommunicated
Luther before Charles V at the Diet of Worms (1521);The Ban of the Empire; Luther is "kidnapped" by Frederick the Wise of Saxony; The Wartburg
Why didn't Charles win?
Could he have converted?
Opposition of the German princes.
Trouble with successive popes: Leo X died in 1521; Adrian VI sided with Francis I; Clement VII and the sack of Rome in 1527
The Turks and Francis I
The Peace of Augsburg 1555.
Luther's political conservatism, unlike Calvin and the Anabaptists.
His reaction to the Peasants' Rebellion of 1524-1525
Revolt in South and SW Germany by "educated" peasants
The 12 Articles: parish elect their own priests; reduce fees to Church and nobles; allow peasants to hunt and gather wood
John Calvin (1509-1564)
1536 Geneva wins independence from its Catholic bishop; Calvin publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion
Predestination; the elect (who tend to act puritanically)
The Consistory in Geneva; the world as an antechamber to hell; no dancing, theater, gambling, or sex
Michael Servetus burned at the stake by Calvin in 1553
Scotland and John Knox; Puritans in England and Massachusetts; Low countries; France and the Eidgenossen ("covenented") or Huguenots
Protestant Rebels: the Anabaptists
1530's John of Leiden seizes Munster.
polygamy, hostile to class distinctions and private property
Meno Simons and the Pennsylvania Dutch