2. The Renaissance

The meaning of "Renaissance"

Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?

Why the plastic arts in the 15th century?

From cloth merchants to bankers--high risk of lending.

Money changing and transporting; bills of exchange

The Bardi and Peruzzi houses, Edward III and the Hundred Years' War.

The Medici Bank in the 15th century; Cosimo de'Medici and Lorenzo the Magnificent

The Renaissance as a Revolution of Mind

Niccolo Machiavelli and The Prince

Lorenzo Valla and the Donations of Constantine

Erasmus and the Bible--looking forward to the Reformation

War the real invention of the Renaissance--150 years of war from Charles VIII and Louis XII of France through the 30 Years' War. Origin of French-Austrian (and later French-Prussian) rivalry

Lombardy, the natural battlefield between France in the West and Austria in the East.

Wars start in 1497 when the condottiere Ludovico Sforza of Milan invited Charles VIII of France to help him against Ferdinand of Naples.

After Charles' death the war is fought between his son Louis XiI and the great warrior Pope Julius II--consequences for the papacy.

Important stage of the war is really between Louis XIII's son Francis I and Emperor Charles V (these wars last 1515-1559, by which time both Francis and Charles are dead).

Fear of Charles V real reason for the wars.

Francis I and the changes he brought to France: Intendants, parlements, sale of benefices both lay and clerical--first steps towards the French Revolution.

Charles starts war well--captures Francis at Pavia--but he finally failed. Why?

Francis and his son Henry II ruled a united country.

Charles Flemish, not German, and spent most of his time in Spain. His conciliatory attitude towards Flanders. Distraction of the Turks--Solyman the Magnificent and the Battle of Mohacz 1526, alliance between Francis and Solyman.

War ends with Treaty of Cateau-Cambr├ęsis in 1559 between Henry II and Philip II.

Importance of Metz, Toul, and Verdun