1. Introduction

Our textbook; Downloads and web site

Importance of a notebook

Quizzes, tests, and papers; oral reports; online outlines

Why Western Civilization?

The End of the Roman Empire--476 and 1453 AD

France and an era of Revolutions

A tour of Europe in 1494

England the strongest; united for 400 years; a real Parliament

France only really united in 1494 by marriage of Charles VIII and Anne of Brittany

Spain, only united in 1470's by Ferdinand and Isabella; Granada and the Moors 1492; Columbus in 1493; Consequences

Italy only a geographical expression: Normans conquered south 1040-80; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Spain, France); Papal States in center; North a battleground between France, Austria, and Spain.

Germany: The Holy Roman Empire 500 years old; The 7 electors: Cologne, Trèves, and Mainz, Bohemia, Palatinate, Saxony, and Brandenburg. Since 1436 the emperor an Austrian--a.e.i.o.u--Maximilian I marries Mary of Burgundy, their son Philip marries Joana of Spain.

Feudalism replaced by nationalism, religion by patriotism.