Sparta and Athens

The Dorian invasions

Destruction of Mycenean civilization and enslavement of inhabitants

Sparta's lawgiver Lycurgus (825 B.C.). He creates a social and a constitutional revolution

The original Greek constitution: King, council of elders, and Assembly of adult males

Spartan wrinkles:

2 kings

3 tribes divided into 27 phratries--thus 27 member Gerousia

Constitutional reforms:

"the Great Rhetra"

3 tribes becomes 5 tribes based on residence

Gerousia increased to 30 members, including 2 kings

restrictions on Assembly (727 B.C.)

the 5 ephors

Social reforms:

All land confiscated and divided into 9000 equal portions

sumptuary laws

a boy's life:


drafted at age 7--methods of education (the boy and the fox) and training

Crypteia (p. 141)

Marriage and admission to a mess hall

Women at Sparta

Messenia (740-720 B.C.)


The original Athenian constitution

The fate of the kings

The 9 archons

The Ekklesia (Assembly)

The Areopagus Council

Conditions by the 6th century: 6th parters

The social reforms of Solon: cancellation of debts, wills, naturalization of foreign tradesmen

Solon's political reforms: property classes, Ekklesia as high court, Council of 400

Solon's poetry

The tyranny of Pisistratos

Harmodius, Aristogeiton, and Hippias

The reforms of Cleisthenes: 10 new tribes; Council of 500