Akhnaton and Egyptian Religion

The reforms and strange appearance of Amenhotep IV or Akhnaton and his wife Nefertiti

Egyptian Religion.

The 3 layers of Egyptian religion

1. Sun worship--Re, Aton, and the dung beetle (scarab)

2. Amon, later the patron god of Thebes

3. Osiris, King of the Dead

"Solarization" in Egyptian religion; Amon-Ra

The origin of monotheism in Egypt

The myth of Osiris

Akhnaton as rock star

The cult of the dead

Herodotus: How to Make a Mummy

Motives for Akhnaton's reforms: The power of the Amon priests.

Troubles in Akhetaten: Fall of Nefertiti; Rise and Fall of Smenkhkare

Losses in the empire

Letter of Abdu-Heba

King Tut: from Tutankhaton to Tutankhamon

Fall of the 18th dynasty: Harmhab

Ramses I and the 19th dynasty; Ramses II

The victory of the priests of Amon.


The Assyrians and the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.

Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian Captivity

The Medes and the Persians

The Hittites and Indo-Europeans