Sumerians neither Semitic nor Indo-European
Base 60: circles, hours, and six packs
Sumerian cities; the Nippur city map
The Royal Graves of Ur (3000 B.C.); Queen Puabi
The Sumerian King List (from Nippur, about 2125 BC). The Flood
Evidence for "democracy" in early Sumer
The Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga
The First dynasty of Ur; Mesannapada
2500 B.C. King Eannatum of Lagash and the Vulture Stele
The Akkadians and the reign of Sargon the Great
The Third Dynasty of Ur (2112-2004 B.C.)
The Law Code of Ur-Nammu
1763 B.C. Final conquest by Hammurabi of Babylon
Hammurabi and his code (from PDF: Richard Hooper, "Hammurabi's Code," Representative Chapters in Ancient History [Lanham: University Press of America 2000]).
A patriarchal society.
marriage price and dowry
Women's right of inheritance
documentation and business
Lex talionis (law of "tit for tat")
sliding scale of values
"The punishment fits the crime."