The Sumerians and Hammurabi

Sumerians neither Semitic nor Indo-European

Base 60: circles, hours, and six packs

Sumerian cities; the Nippur city map

The Royal Graves of Ur (3000 B.C.); Queen Puabi

The Sumerian King List (from Nippur, about 2125 BC). The Flood

Evidence for "democracy" in early Sumer

The Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga

Sumerian religion

The First dynasty of Ur; Mesannapada

2500 B.C. King Eannatum of Lagash and the Vulture Stele

The Akkadians and the reign of Sargon the Great

The Third Dynasty of Ur (2112-2004 B.C.)

The Law Code of Ur-Nammu

1763 B.C. Final conquest by Hammurabi of Babylon

Hammurabi and his code (from PDF: Richard Hooper, "Hammurabi's Code," Representative Chapters in Ancient History [Lanham: University Press of America 2000]).

A patriarchal society.



Women's rights

marriage price and dowry

Women's right of inheritance


career women



documentation and business

Lex talionis (law of "tit for tat")

sliding scale of values

"The punishment fits the crime."