1046. Henry III installs his uncle Bruno as Pope Leo IX; Leo gives cardinals the power to elect popes and turns reformer.
1073. Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII. Nobles in Saxony revolt against Henry IV.
1075. Gregory VII forbids the German emperor to appoint bishops.
1076. Gregory excommunicates Henry IV.
1077. Henry IV before Conossa begging the pope for forgiveness.
1084. Henry takes Rome and installs anti-pope.
1122. Henry V signs Concordat of Worms with pope, ending the Investiture Controversy with a compromise. Meanwhile Germany has become feudalized and divided into virtually independent principalities.
8th century: Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid establish friendly relations; caliphs allow free access of pilgrims to Holy Land.
1071. Turks defeat Byzantine emperor at Manzikert and also enter Baghdad; pilgrimages to Holy Land blocked.
1095. Pope Urban II gives speech at Clermont which inspires First Crusade. Peter the Hermit and the first mob of peasants descend on the emperor Alexius Comnenus.
1098. Crusader State of Edessa founded. Antioch falls after 7 months and becomes 2nd Crusader State.
1099. Jerusalem falls to Crusaders and becomes 3rd Crusader State.
1109. Tripoli set up as last Crusader State.
1120's. Moslems fight back; 1144 Edessa retaken by Moslems. St. Bernard organizes disastrous 2nd Crusade: . King Louis VII of France [and Eleanor of Aquitaine] and Conrad III Hohenstaufen
1124. Saladin retakes Jerusalem.
1198-1192. Thirds Crusade. 1190. Frederick Barbarossa drowns. Richard Lionheart and Philip Augustus in the Holy Land. 1191. Fall of Acre to Crusaders. Saladin allows access to Jerusalem.
1198. Pope Innocent III calls 4th Crusade. Isaac Angelus, Alexius Angelus, and Young Alexius. Venice, Zara, the doge, Pope Innocent III, The Latin Kingdom. 1203 and 1204: Crusaders sack Constantinople (retaken by Greeks in 1261).
1215. The Fourth Lateran Council
1221. Unsuccessful 5th Crusade against Egypt.
1222. [The Childrens' Crusade: William the Pig and Iron Hugh; Stephen the shepherd boy]
1225-1226. The Albigensian Crusade.
1229. Frederick II on 6th Crusade negotiates for control of Jerusalem.
1244. Moslems retake Jerusalem for the last time.
1249. King Louis IX of France captured in Egypt on the 7th Crusade; he dies in Tunis on the 8th.
1291. Acre falls with a loss of 60,000 Christians--end of the Crusades.
Dominicans and Franciscans