Clovis becomes king of the Franks 481 AD. The Merovingian Dynasty. His Catholic wife Clotilda. Baptism of the army at Reims.

Mayors of the Palace and "do-nothing kings."

Charles Martel, the Battle of Tours (732), and the Carolingian House.

Pepin the Short kicks out Childeric III and becomes first Carolingian King of the Franks.

Pope Stephen, the Lombards, and the Donation of Pepin.


His appearance; his empire

Charlemagne's government: counts, counties, dukes, [missi dominici]

Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800. The Lombards again.

The Carolingian Renaissance. Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) and the cathedral

Louis the Pious

Louis and his three sons: Charles the Bald, Louis the German, and Lothaire. The Strasbourg Oaths and the division of Charlemagne's empire. Lotharingia=Lorraine

Hugh Capet in France; The Dukes of Saxony in Germany