The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla

The conquest of Greece

Philip V defeated at Cynoscephalae 197 BC

Perseus defeated at Pydna 168 BC

Third Punic War and destruction of Carthage (146 BC)

Economic hard times following Second Punic War.

Ager Publicus and the Licinian-Sextian Laws. The proletarii.

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. His family and his career in Spain.

Tiberius' run for the tribuneship.

Tiberius' land bill.

Tiberius submits his land bill to the Tribal Assembly.

The Tribune Octavius; his impeachment.

The Land Commission: Tiberius, his brother Gaius, and his father-in-law Appius Claudius.

The Senate withholds money; the bequest of Attalus III of Pergamum.

Tiberius decides to run a second time for tribune; the Senate's objections.

Violence on election day.

344. Scipio Nasica, the Pontifex Maximus, leads a riot which kills Tiberius.

Ultimate fate of Tiberius' land bill.

The reforms of Gaius Gracchus

cheap grain, colonies in Italy and Carthage, rights for the Italians

death of Gaius Gracchus

The Career of Gaius Marius.

Marius drafts the proletarii to fight the war against Jugurtha.


Cimbri and Teutones. Marius serves as consul 6 times between 107 and 100 B.C.

The war against the Italian Allies (90-88 BC)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Senate's champion.

Marius and Sulla argue over the war against Mithradates in 88 B.C.

Marius' 7th consulship.

Sulla's return and proscriptions.